Critical thinking skills are listed among the top-most in demand skills in the modern workplace. What are they and how can you develop these vital skills in your workforce? How can branching scenarios improve critical thinking?
A branching scenario is a learning activity which presents learners with a question or problem that has multiple potential answers, each with its own consequence or set of consequences. It can be compared to a choose-your-own-adventure story.
This type of scenario challenges learners to apply their theoretical knowledge, experience and intuition to practical applications within the learning activity. They must get involved to act as problem-solvers and decision-makers as they deal with each scenario, rather than passively reading/watching information being presented to them.
Above: A complex branching scenario takes learners on a non-linear, unpredictable path.
Each choice has a consequence. This makes for a more engaging and immersive experience than traditional training - instead of being passive recipients of information presented to them, learners must actively participate in the lessons.
Instead of a quiz with a set of correct and incorrect answers, learners see a range of possible life-like consequences to their actions and decisions, with a different outcome depending on the choice that they made at the decision point.
This instant feedback allows them to evaluate the results and to improve their responses during their next attempt or when they're back on the job.
In a scenario-based lesson, the problem-solving cycle is completed almost instantaneously. And if it's an online experience, this provides opportunities for learners to go back and practice repeatedly so they discover the best possible solution.
Because of this instant feedback, scenario-based training helps learners achieve better results and to fast-track both their reasoning abilities and complex procedural learning. Let’s explore how, in more detail:
Employers want employees who can evaluate a situation or problem and come up with the best solution. Someone with critical thinking skills can be trusted to make good decisions and use their initiative to solve day-to-day problems. They will require less supervision and ‘hand-holding’.
Some of the top capabilities listed among critical thinking skills are:
The following three examples will explain how a well-researched branched scenario can be used to develop most of these skills:
The learner is a relationship manager to high net-worth clients. She must learn how to deal with unhappy clients.
The scenario challenges may require the manager to:
If dealing with a foreign client, the manager may also need to:
The manager’s problem-solving skills could be tested by a complex branched scenario that requires logical reasoning, attention to details, identification of patterns, and application of standards.
A complex branching scenario could be used to train potential leaders to use the appreciative inquiry strategy for directing decisions.
Traditional problem-solving focuses on what is wrong and how to fix it. In contrast, appreciative inquiry focuses on strengths and what is working well to find pathways for future improvement and growth.
Since appreciative inquiry is an uncommon strategy, scenarios provide a way for learners to try out the approach and experience the outcome of different types of responses.
A realistic branching scenario for trainee doctors can provide them with:
Ultimately, branching scenarios should ensure effective learning outcomes, inspire reflection by learners on the critical thinking skills they need to improve, and deliver an engaging experience to help embed the learning.
What are procedural skills and why do employers want them?
Procedural learning refers to the acquisition of motor skills and habits, and certain types of cognitive skills. It usually requires repetition of an activity, and associated learning is demonstrated through improved task performance.1
It is a slow and inflexible learning system that requires extensive practice. Eventually it takes on an automatic or reflexive quality. “It is, however, long-lasting and reliable, as any bike rider knows—even after years of absence from a bicycle, one never loses the skill.” 2
Researchers report that procedural memory forms a person's character. Learning certain behaviors or emotional responses causes them to become automatic responses to specific situations. This can reinforce good habits but also make it difficult to shed bad habits. 3
The aim of training to improve procedural learning is to reinforce good habits and desired behavior patterns and to give plenty of practice to replace bad habits.
Branching scenarios work well for practicing tasks that require multiple steps and several consecutive decision points. The trainees’ active participation in decision-making pathways increases learner involvement and engagement, particularly for ‘dry’ topics like procedural rules and safety regulations.
In many instances, procedural tasks also require intuitive evaluation and critical thinking skills.
For example, an experienced cyclist who finds herself in a risky situation will unconsciously assess the possible options, such as:
After choosing an option, she will implement her cycling skills, which are ingrained procedural habits, to handle the bike and respond appropriately.
In some work situations, employees need experience in assessing much more complex procedures and decision pathways. Thankfully, these are easy to map out in SimTutor Author's planning view, shown below. Then each step in the training can be easily and quickly fleshed out with appropriate content for the relevant learning objective, including multi-choice question, image, video clip, hot-spot, scoring, and so on.
Above: SimTutor branched scenario planning tool.
The next two examples explain how a well-researched branched scenario can be used to develop a complex set of procedural skills:
An organization providing transportation services to the elderly or disabled may use eLearning for training.
Branching scenarios could be used to teach drivers the correct procedure for securing wheelchairs inside the vehicles safely. The module may provide procedural practice, such as checking a passenger in a wheelchair, identifying whether or not there are any issues, and rectifying them; sequencing the steps to move the wheelchair correctly into the vehicle; and performing the steps to secure the wheelchair, after choosing the appropriate equipment.
Procedural learning can also be applied to the understanding of policies and their utilization in relevant day-to-day situations. The training content might be a policy manual. Employees must first become familiar with it and then start implementing it.
A branching scenario can be a successful design. It could provide a variety of experiences which allow employers to use the instructions and procedures in the policy for decision-making.
This will be more interesting and engaging than simply quizzing employees on policies. When learners can view the consequences of their actions/selections, they more likely to realize the value of a selected procedure or policy than if they were simply instructed to follow the rules.
In conclusion, complex branching scenarios are an excellent design approach to practice skills in challenging situations that require critical thinking or a keen familiarity with procedures, including the value of each procedure to the end goal. An interactive training design can make scenario-based learning more engaging and less overwhelming, no matter what the industry or nature of training content.